A Journal of the International Biometric Society
8/31/16: New Editor
We are pleased to announce that Professor Malka Gorfine has been appointed co-editor of Biometrics with a 3-year term beginning 1 January 2017, replacing Yi-Hau Chen, whose term ends at the end of 2016. Malka Gorfine is Associate Professor of Statistics at the Department of Statistics and Operations Research at Tel-Aviv University Israel. She obtained her Master (1995) and PhD (1999) degrees in Statistics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. She spent two years (1999-2001) at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre, Seattle USA, as a staff scientist (advanced postdoctoral position), and returned to Israel toward the end of 2001. She spent four years at the Mathematics department of Bar-Ilan University, nine years at the Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, and since 2014 she joined Tel-Aviv University. During the 2011-2012 academic year she was a visiting faculty member at the Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology of Harvard School of Public Health, USA. Since 2003-present she is an affiliate faculty at the Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre, Seattle, USA. She served as AE for Biometrics since 2009 and for Lifetime Data Analysis since 2011. Her research interests are in disease risk estimation and prediction using candidate genes and environmental risk factors from both family and case-control survival data; statistical genetics; measurement errors; survival analysis; and tests of independence. We welcome Professor Gorfine as Co-Editor and we look forward to working with her.
9/30/15: Move to ScholarOne Manuscripts
AS OF 1 OCTOBER 2015,
Biometrics will begin using the ScholarOne (SO) Manuscript submission system for
its editorial processes. All NEW MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSIONS as of 1 October should
be made through the journal's SO site at
https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/biom. Authors and referees for papers
submitted on or after 1 October will use the SO system to submit papers and
associated materials, upload invited revisions, retrieve papers and associated
materials for review, and submit referee reports. Prior to this date, all
manuscript submissions to Biometrics (new and revised) will be by email to
email@example.com, as has been
longstanding practice. The editorial process for papers submitted before 1
October will be completed by email and WILL NOT involve the SO system. Thus:
- If you have a submitted paper currently under review with Biometrics or submit one prior to 1 October, you will continue to communicate with the Editorial Office and to submit invited revisions by email until the review process for your paper is concluded.
- If you are currently serving as a referee for a Biometrics submission, you will send your referee report directly to the Associate Editor by email. You will receive any revisions/responses to reviews directly from the Associate Editor by email and continue to submit future reports to him/her by email until the review process for the paper is completed. This move will streamline production of the journal and allow authors to check the status of their manuscripts under review directly in the system. This system is used by many other journals, and use of the system by authors and reviewers is fairly self-explanatory.
As of 1 October, if you encounter challenges or have questions about using the SO system as an author or referee, please contact the Biometrics Editorial Office at firstname.lastname@example.org.
8/7/15: New Book Review Editor
We are pleased to announce that Dr. Donna Ankerst has been appointed as Book Review Editor with a 3-year term beginning 1 January 2016. Dr. Ankerst completed her undergraduate degree in Mathematics at the University of Texas in Austin, Texas, and her Masterís and Ph.D. degrees in Statistics at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She spent the next four years completing a National Science Foundation Mathematics Postdoctoral Fellowship studying Biostatistics at the Harvard University School of Public Health in Boston, Massachusetts. One of these years was spent as visiting lecturer in Statistics at University College London, London, England and another was spent working directly with the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, where her interest in biomarkers for early cancer detection, specifically CA125 for ovarian cancer and prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer, blossomed. From Boston she moved on to Seattle, Washington, to further pursue biomarker studies as faculty at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington. There she served on the Cancer Control Committee of the Southwest Oncology Group, and through its Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, began a decade-old and growing collaboration with Dr. Ian Thompson. Dr. Ankerst later relocated to Munich, Germany to become Professor of Mathematics at the Technical University and assumed a part-time Associate Research Professor appointment in the Department of Urology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio in order to maintain her active research in biomarkers for prostate cancer. We welcome Dr. Ankerst and look forward to working with her.
8/7/15: New Editor
We are pleased to announce that Professor Stijn Vansteelandt has been appointed co-editor of Biometrics with a 3-year term beginning 1 January 2016, replacing Jeanine Houwing-Duistermaat whose term ends at the end of 2015. Stijn Vansteelandt is Professor of Statistics in the Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics at Ghent University, Belgium, and Honorary Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health at the London School of Public Health, U.K. He obtained his master degree in mathematics in 1998 and a PhD in 2002 from Ghent University, and did part of his postdoctoral research at the Department of Biostatistics of the Harvard School of Public Health, U.S.A. His research interests are in the analysis of longitudinal and clustered data, methods for missing data and causal inference, semi-parametric inference, family-based genetic association studies, analysis of outcome-dependent samples and phylogenetic inference. He has served as Associate Editor for Biometrics from 2006 to 2012, and currently serves as Associate Editor for the journals Biostatistics (since 2010), Epidemiology (since 2013), Epidemiologic Methods (since 2011) and the Journal of Causal Inference (since 2011). He has served as a board member of the Quetelet Society (Belgian Region of the IBS), as coordinator and steering member of the Channel Network, as a member of the Editorial Advisory Committee, and currently, as a Representative Council member of IBS. We welcome Professor Vansteelandt as Co-Editor and we look forward to working with him.
8/12/14: New Editor
9/26/13: New Editor
We are delighted to report that Professor Yi-Hau Chen has been chosen to serve as the new Co-Editor, beginning January 1, 2014, replacing Russell Millar who steps down at the end of 2013. Professor Chen is Research Fellow of the Institute of Statistical Science at Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. He obtained his bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from National Taiwan University in 1991, and a master's degree in Statistics from National Chengchi University in 1993. He received his PhD in biostatistics from National Taiwan University in 1997 on the topic of two-stage epidemiological studies and incomplete covariate data. After receipt of his PhD, he had a two years mandatory army service, and then became an assistant professor at National Taiwan Normal University from 1999 to 2000 in the Mathematics department. He joined the Institute of Statistical Science at Academia Sinica in 2000. He has received several prestigious research grants and awards in Taiwan. His research interests are in missing data, measurement errors, survival analysis, longitudinal data analysis, statistical genetics, and bioinformatics. He has been on the Editorial Board of Statistica Sinica (since 2006), Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics (since 2009), and the Indian Journal of Statistics (Sankhya) Series B (since 2012). He has been an Associate Editor of Biometrics since 2006. We welcome Professor Chen as Co-Editor and look forward to working with him.
6/27/13: New Features and Resources from Wiley-Blackwell
Our publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, has put in place several exciting new features and resources. Wiley-Blackwell is a strong supporter of the ongoing International Year of Statistics (www.statistics2013.org). This year's issues of Biometrics have the International Year on the front cover. In addition, in celebration of the International Year, a "virtual issue" of 15 "classic" papers from Biometrics put together by the Co-Editors is featured on the Biometrics Wiley Online Library website http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/subject/code/000113/homepage/biometrics_virtual_issue.htm). Wiley-Blackwell has also created a new "information hub" for statistics, StatisticsViews.com (www.statisticsviews.com), which aims to bring statistics together with free access to exclusive feature articles, news items, details of forthcoming events, society details and much more. Throughout 2013, StatisticsViews.com will be updated with news related to the International Year of Statistics. In fact, an interview with incoming IBS president and current vice president John Hinde is featured (http://www.statisticsviews.com/details/feature/4253081/Lets-get-back-to-science-and-make-our-governance-work-Prof_-John-Hinde-on-becomi.html). Wiley is also highlighting the International Year on a dedicated page (www.wiley.com/go/iys).
4/12/13: Color Figures
Ordinarily, the journal does not print in color, however,
authors desiring color figures to appear in the print version of the journal can
now pay a charge to cover the additional cost of paper and binding associated
with including color figures. Up to four journal pages of an article may
include color, at a charge of $350 per page.
8/28/12: New Editor
We are pleased to announce that Professor Jeanine Houwing-Duistermaat has been chosen to serve as the new Co-Editor, beginning January 1, 2013, replacing Geert Verbeke who steps down at the end of 2012. Jeanine Houwing-Duistermaat is Professor of Statistical Genetics at the Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. She obtained her master degree in mathematics from Utrecht University in 1992, and a PhD in 1997 from Leiden University on the topic of the statistical analysis of family data. After her PhD, she had a six years appointment on research in statistical methods for genetic data at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. She returned to Leiden in 2003 and became a faculty member at the department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics. She has received several prestigious grants for funding her research in statistical methods. She has strong collaborations with biologists and clinicians on advanced statistical analyses. Her research interests are in multilevel random effects models, joint modeling, statistical models for family data, integrative methods for multiple -omics data, bioinformatics and modeling of human longevity. She has been Associate Editor of Biometrics since 2006. We welcome Professor Houwing-Duistermaat as Co-Editor and look forward to working with her.
11/28/11: Supplementary Materials
10/6/11: Executive Editor
We are delighted to report that Professor Marie Davidian has been approved by Council to serve a three year term as Executive Editor of Biometrics. This will be Professor Davidian's third term as Executive Editor, serving in this capacity since January 1, 2006, and we are extremely grateful for her dedication to the journal, and look forward to her continued contribution.
As a reminder, the responsibilities of the Executive Editor are administrative and include assigning new manuscripts to the three co-editors based on the co-editors' research backgrounds (but not to handle manuscripts thereafter), coordinating activities among the editors, coordinating editorial board activities, preparing reports, and communicating with the co-editors, central office, publisher and IBS Office.
10/6/11: Addressing the Backlog
The September and December 2011 issues of Biometrics are considerably longer than the usual issue, which is generally around 340-345 pages (including the front and back matter that appears in the print version). Because our publishing agreement with Wiley-Blackwell limits the number of pages per volume (so for the four issues in a calendar year) to 1376, or roughly 344 per issue, and because we receive so many high quality submissions, the backlog, or time from article acceptance to appearance in the print version, has been greater than 12 months for the last several years. Articles accepted for publication appear online within eight weeks of acceptance (provided the authors return copyright forms and page proofs in a timely fashion) and are citable by digital object identifier (doi) number. However, an article is not citable by volume, issue, and page numbers, nor can citations to it be counted in the journal's Impact Factor, until it is published in the print version (and the corresponding electronic version) of the issue in which it appears.
Upon review of this situation, the IBS Executive Committee made a special purchase from the publisher of an additional 344 pages (one issue's worth), half of which was added to the September 2011 issue and the remainder to the December 2011 issue. The additional pages have allowed inclusion of many articles that have been waiting in the publication queue and has reduced the backlog by three to four months.
8/19/11: New Editor
We are delighted to announce that Jeremy Taylor, Professor of Biostatistics and Professor of Radiation Oncology at the University of Michigan, will serve as Co-Editor beginning January 1, 2012, replacing Thomas A. Louis whose term ends December 31, 2011. Professor Taylor obtained his Bachelor's degree in mathematics from Cambridge University in 1978, a Diploma in Statistics in 1979 from Cambridge University and a PhD in statistics from UC Berkeley in 1983. He was on the faculty at UCLA from 1983 to 1998 in the Biostatistics and Radiation Oncology departments. He has held visiting positions at the MRC Biostatistics Unit in Cambridge, at the University of Adelaide and at INSERM, Bordeaux. He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, a winner of the Mortimer Spiegelman Award from the American Public Health Association and the Michael Fry Award from the Radiation Research Society. He is a former President of the Biometrics Section of the American Statistical Association. He has been an Associate Editor of Biometrics since 2000. His research interests are in Box-Cox transformations, missing data, cure models, joint longitudinal-survival models, clinical trial design, surrogate endpoints and statistical methodology for biomarkers. He has published extensively in the AIDS and cancer literature. We welcome Professor Taylor as Co-Editor and look forward to working with him.
8/10/10: New Editor
We are delighted to report that Professor Russell Millar has been chosen to serve as the new Co-Editor, beginning January 1, 2011, replacing Professor David Zucker whose term will end December 31, 2010. Russell Millar is Associate Professor in Statistics at the University of Auckland. He graduated BSc Hons (1st class) in Mathematics (1981), and MSc (with Distinction) in Mathematics (1982) from the University of Auckland. Professor Millar received a PhD (Statistics) in 1989 from the University of Washington, Seattle, on the topic of the estimation of mixing and mixture distributions. The PhD topic was motivated by the mixing of regional salmon populations on the high seas, and his research has maintained a strong marine element ever since. After his PhD, Professor Millar had a 3-year appointment as a fisheries research scientist with the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans in St John's, Newfoundland. He returned to New Zealand in 1992, spending four years at the University of Otago, before moving to the University of Auckland in 1996. He has published extensively with an emphasis on developing relevant and pragmatic statistical methodology. His research is usually motivated by marine and ecological applications, but the resulting methodology is often relevant far more widely. His research covers a broad range, including the development of fishing gears to minimize discards, modeling polyspermic fertilization, nonlinear canonical analysis of principle co-ordinates, local sensitivity of Bayesian models to prior and model specification, and the behaviour of DIC in hierarchical models. In 2009, Professor Millar was a National Research Council Senior Research Fellow with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developing integrated structural models of salmon population dynamics. He has been on the Editorial Board of the New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research (2001-2005) and the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science (2002-2006). He was a co-Editor of the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics from 2001 to 2005, and has been an Associate Editor of Biometrics since 2006.
1/1/10: New Editor
We are pleased to announce that Professor Geert Verbeke begins his duties as the new Co-Editor, beginning January 1, 2010, replacing Geert Molenberghs whose term ended at the end of 2009. Geert Verbeke is Professor of Biostatistics at the Biostatistical Centre of the Katholieke Universiteit (K.U)† Leuven in Belgium.† He received the B.Sc. degree in mathematics (1989) from K.U. Leuven, the M.Sc. in biostatistics (1992) from the Limburgs Universitair Centrum, and the Ph.D. in biostatistics from K.U. Leuven in 1995.† He has published extensively on longitudinal data analysis, and is internationally recognized for his books on linear mixed effects models and modeling of discrete longitudinal data.† Geert is Past President of the Belgian Region of the IBS, was the International Program Chair for the International Biometric Conference in Montreal in 2006, and is a Board member of the American Statistical Association.† He is past Joint Editor of the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A (2005-8) and is currently Director of the Leuven Center for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics (L-BioStat) and vice-Director of the Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics (I-BioStat), a joint initiative of the Hasselt and K.U. Leuven universities. We welcome Professor Verbeke as Co-Editor and look forward to working with him.
3/10/09: Translations of Abstracts
As of the March 2009 issue, translations of the abstracts will be available under the Paper Information link.
11/6/08: New Editor
We are delighted to announce that Professor Thomas A. Louis of the Department of Biostatistics at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, has been selected to serve as Co-Editor of Biometrics for a three-year term beginning January 1, 2009. Professor Louis will succeed current Co-Editor Naisyin Wang of the Department of Statistics at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas, USA. Professor Louis has served the IBS in many roles, most recently as President in 2006-2007 and Vice President in 2005 and 2008. He also has a wealth of editorial experience, including service as Coordinating Editor and Editor of the Application and Case Studies section of the Journal of the American Statistical Association. Professor Louis is co-author of the best-selling book "Bayes and Empirical Bayes Methods for Data Analysis," now in its third edition, and has expertise in a broad range of methodological and application areas, including Bayesian design and analysis, multi-level models, longitudinal and other correlated data models, risk assessment, and research synthesis. We welcome Professor Louis as Co-Editor and look forward to working with him.
9/4/08: Biometrics Now Archiving Articles Subject to the US NIH Public Access Policy
Our publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, will now archive articles subject to the US National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy accepted after September 8, 2008, to PubMed Central (see the Information for Authors link for details).
4/3/08: US NIH Public Access Policy
Biometrics authors whose work is supported by funds from the US National Institutes of Health are subject to the NIH Public Access Policy as of April 7, 2008. Please visit the "Information for Authors" link and click on "Information for Authors Subject to the US NIH Public Access Policy" for details.
10/29/07: Descriptions of Reader Reaction and Letters to the Editors sections Updated
The descriptions for the Reader Reaction and Letters to the Editors section have been updated. Visit the "Information for Authors" link and click on "Types of Submissions Accepted" for details.
8/28/07: New Editor
We are delighted to announce that Professor David M. Zucker has been chosen to serve as the new Co-Editor, beginning January 1, 2008. Professor Zucker will replace Laurence Freedman whose term concludes December 31st. David Zucker is Associate Professor of Statistics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. He served as Associate Editor for Controlled Clinical Trials during the period 1998-1999, and has been serving as Associate Editor of Biometrics since 2003. He is currently president of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the IBS. Professor Zucker has done both methodological and applied work. On the methodological side, his main interests are survival analysis, repeated measures analysis (continuous and discrete), clinical trial design, and nonlinear regression models with covariate error. On the applications side, his main interests are clinical trials and epidemiology. We are pleased to welcome Professor Zucker as Co-Editor.
8/28/07: New Sections in Biometrics
In response to feedback from members of the International Biometric Society and readers of and authors in Biometrics, the sections of the journal have been reformulated, effective with the March 2008 issue! The following sections of Biometrics were approved by the IBS Council: The Regular Communications section will be renamed Biometric Methodology. The Consultant's Forum section will be reformulated as Biometric Practice, with somewhat different criteria and scope. The Reader Reaction and Letters to the Editors sections will remain the same. Updated descriptions of these sections are available under the Information for Authors link under TYPES OF SUBMISSIONS ACCEPTED.
4/19/07: New LaTeX Document Class
We are pleased to announce that a new LaTeX document class for Biometrics is now ready for use by authors. The entire distribution has been posted under the "Information for Authors" link, and includes a User Guide, sample LaTeX source documents, and a source document that may be used as a template by authors. A bibliography style file for use with BibTeX will be added shortly.
10/27/2006: New Editor
We are pleased to announce that Professor Geert Molenberghs has been chosen to serve as the new Co-Editor, beginning January 1, 2007, replacing Mike Kenward who steps down at the end of 2006. Professor Molenberghs is Professor in the Center for Statistics, Hasselt University, and Director of Censtat. He has had a long history of service to the IBS, serving in several elective offices, including as IBS President in 2004-2005.† He was also a Biometrics Associate Editor from 1997-2001, and was Joint Editor of Applied Statistics (Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C) 2001-2004.† He is an expert on longitudinal, clustered, and incomplete data and has published several best-selling books on these topics. We are very pleased to have Professor Molenberghs on the editorial board.
3/31/2006: Biometrics Now Accepting Submission of Supplementary Materials!
In light of increasing pressure on journal space, Biometrics is now using the Journal's website at http://www.biometrics.tibs.org to post supplementary material for published papers. Examples of supplementary materials are appendices containing detailed mathematical derivations too extensive for inclusion in the main paper, results of extensive simulation studies, and additional tables and figures. These materials should be included at the time of submission of the main paper and will be subject to peer review.
Supplementary materials may also result from a request by the Co-Editor during the review process to reformulate portions of the main paper as supplementary material.
For full details on the Biometrics policy on supplementary materials and for instructions for submission, visit the "Information for Authors" link (click on "Instructions for Submitting a Paper") at http://www.biometrics.tibs.org.
1/19/2006: Paid Advertisements in Biometrics
Many scientific journals sponsored by professional societies accept paid advertisements as a way of bringing information of interest to the attention of members and enhancing society revenues. In early 2005, the IBS Council approved a formal policy regarding paid advertisements in Biometrics. The policy allows no more than 5% of the total pages of any single issue to contain paid advertisements that are "consistent with the scientific standards and mission of the journal, the mission statement of the Society, and the interests of members of the Society."
As a result, beginning with the June 2006 issue, paid advertisements will appear in the back matter of Biometrics. As per the policy, advertisements submitted for publication will be subject to approval by the Executive Editor based on the standards noted above. Accepted advertisements will appear in the earliest upcoming issue in which space is available.
Parties interested in submitting advertisements should contact Ben Harkinson, Advertising Sales Coordinator, Blackwell Publishing, at +1 781-388-8532 or journaladsUSA@bos.blackwellpublishing.com.
11/11/2005: Executive Editor
We are delighted to report that Professor Marie Davidian of the Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, will begin the new post of Executive Editor of Biometrics on January 1, 2006. Professor Davidian has been selected by the search committee to act as the first Executive Editor of Biometrics. The responsibilities of the Executive Editor are administrative and will include assigning new manuscripts to the three co-editors based on the co-editors' research backgrounds (but not to handle manuscripts thereafter), coordinating activities among the editors, coordinating editorial board activities, preparing reports, and communicating with the co-editors, central office, publisher and IBS Office. Professor Davidian is uniquely qualified for this job, as she has been a co-editor of Biometrics in the recent past, and has since stayed actively involved with the journalís operations through chairing the IBS Editorial Advisory Committee. We are looking forward to her joining the editorial team and expect that we will all benefit from her involvement.
11/11/2005: New Editor
We are pleased to announce that Professor Naisyin Wang will serve as the new Co-Editor, beginning January 1, 2006, replacing Xihong Lin who steps down at the end of 2005. Professor Wang is a professor in the Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University. She has served on the editorial board for Biometrics for many years, and we are very pleased to have Professor Wang on the editorial board.
2/14/2005: Change of Email and Website
The Biometrics email address has changed. The new e-mail address is email@example.com. We encourage authors to now use the new email address. If you send a message to the old address, the message will be forwarded to the new e-mail address.
The Biometrics website has also changed. The new location is http//www.biometrics.tibs.org. The old website location will now automatically reroute users to the new location.
1/4/2005: Online Early
We are pleased to announce that in January 2005, Biometrics will launch a new online early process for accepted papers, which allows an accepted paper to be published shortly after its acceptance at the Biometrics website of Blackwell Synergy http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/, much earlier than the following printed version in the Journal. This online initiative will help increase citation and impact of accepted Biometrics papers. This process will begin with papers scheduled for publication in the June 2005 issue. To coordinate the online early process, authors are required to return pageproofs to Blackwell within 48 hours after receiving them. Please make appropriate arrangements. French abstract translations will not be placed at the end of each article but will placed together at the end of each issue, indexed in the table of contents. We will provide detailed information on how to cite electronically published papers on the Biometrics website soon.
11/16/2004: New Editor
We are pleased to announce that Professor Larry Freedman will serve as the new Co-Editor, beginning January 1, 2005, replacing Brian Cullis who steps down at the end of 2004. Professor Freedman is a professor in the Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Bar Ilan University, Israel, and Director, Biostatistics Unit, Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Tel Hashomer, Israel. He has served on the editorial board for Biometrics and was a co-editor of Statistics in Medicine between 1981 and 1993. You can find more information about Professor Freedman at http://www.math.biu.ac.il/~freedml. We are very pleased to have Professor Freedman on the editorial board.
11/16/2004: Voluntary Page Charge
To help defray the rising costs of publication and to support online initiatives of the journal, such as online early of accepted manuscripts, we would like to ask authors to pay a voluntary page charge for the publication of manuscripts of $55 per printed journal page. The page charge is fully voluntary, and reflects only a portion of the actual cost involved in publishing a paper and these online initiatives. This support will enhance a further success of the journal. The form will be provided when authors receive their pageproofs. If an author elects to pay the voluntary charge, 100 free offprints will be provided.
9/14/04: The past five year issues (1999-2004) of Biometrics are now online at Blackwell Synergy.